Large uninhabited areas on Samothraki show signs of overgrazing, mainly by feral and unmanaged domestic goats and sheep. Reducing that pressure is an integral aspect of managing Samothraki as a Biosphere Reserve. The history of livestock keeping on the island, and the ongoing economic interests that relate to that, do however require a profound mentality change considering the role of livestock for the community. Conducting scientific monitoring (i.e. line transects to estimate goat and sheep abundance) can help to disentangle rumors from facts, and establish a causal link between soil erosion and livestock numbers. Αn approach that involves key stakeholders and citizens in the monitoring process is much more effective in changing long-lasting attitudes within the community.